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Francois D.H. Gould, Ph.D.

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    Assistant Professor

    Science Center, 206


    Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Ph.D., 2013

Research Interests

Imagine Thanksgiving, but all your food must be blended into a milkshake consistency. That is one of the realities faced by many of the thousands of people who suffer from swallowing disorders, or dysphagia. Swallowing disorders are associated with age (both the very young and the elderly have swallowing problems), surgery (particularly neck surgeries), and all primary and secondary neurological disorders (including stroke, Parkinson’s, ALS, and Alzheimers). They severely affect quality of life and can even lead to death through choking or aspiration pneumonia. Yet despite their prevalence and clinical importance, we know little about what goes wrong in swallowing disorders. Swallowing is a complex process involving over 20 paired muscles innervated by 5 different cranial and cervical nerves. It is rapid, coordinated, and occurs hundreds of times a day. In my lab we use animal models to get a better understanding of the musculoskeletal processes involved in swallowing, how those are controlled by the nervous system, and what the specific mechanisms are that cause swallowing deficits after neurological injury. I am currently working on two projects:

  • A project based in Stratford to understand the neurological basis of swallowing disorders in Parkinson’s disease using rat based animal models.
  • A project in collaboration with the German Lab at Northeast Ohio Medical University in Rootstown, Ohio, working in infant pigs to understand the impact of premature birth on the coordination of swallowing and respiration, and how to design medical devices to enhance poor coordination.


1. Catchpole, E., Bond, L., German, R. Z., Mayerl, C., Stricklen, B., Gould, F.D.H. (in press) Reduced Coordination of Hyolaryngeal Elevation and Bolus Movement in a Pig Model of Preterm Infant Swallowing, Dysphagia

2. Mayerl, C., Gould, F.D.H., Bond, L., Stricklen, B., Buddington, R., German, R.Z. (2019) Preterm birth disrupts the development of feeding and breathing coordination, Journal of Applied Physiology 126(6): 1681-1686.

3. Delozier, K., Gould, F.D.H., Ohlemacher, J., Thexton, A., German, R.Z. (2018) The impact of recurrent laryngeal nerve lesion on oropharyngeal muscle activity and sensorimotor integration in an infant pig model, Journal of Applied Physiology 125(1): 159-166.

4. Humbert, I., Sunday, K., Karagiorgos, E., Vose, A., Gould, F. D. H., Greene, L., Tolar, A. (2018) Swallowing kinematic differences across frozen, mixed, and ultra thin liquid boluses in healthy adults: Age, sex, and normal variability, Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 61: 1544-1559 DOI:10.1044/2018_JSLHR-S-17-0417

5. Gould, F.D.H., Gross, A., German, R.Z., Richardson, J.R. (2018) Evidence of oropharyngeal dysfunction in feeding in the rat rotenone model of Parkinson’s disease, Parkinson’s Disease.

6. Ballester, A., Gould, F.D.H., Bond, L., Strickland, B., Gross, A., DeLozier, K., Buddington, R., Buddington, K., Danos, N., Ohlemacher, J., German, R.Z. (2018) Maturation of the Coordination Between Respiration and Deglutition with and Without Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Lesion in an Animal Model, Dysphagia 33(5): 627-635.

7. Gross, A., Ohlemacher, J., German, R. Z., Gould, F.D.H. (2018) LVC Timing in Infant Pig Swallowing and the Effect of Safe Swallowing, Dysphagia 33(1): 51-62.

8. German, R.Z., Gould, F.D.H., Thexton, A.J., Crompton, A.W. (2017) Animal Models for Dysphagia Studies: What have we learnt so far. Dysphagia 32(1): 73-77 DOI: 10.1007/s00455-016-9778-7

9. Gould, F.D.H., Yglesias, B., Ohlemacher, J., German, R.Z. (2017) Pre-pharyngeal swallow effects of recurrent laryngeal nerve lesion on bolus shape and airway protection in infants. Dysphagia 32(3):362-373 DOI: 10.1007/s00455-016-9762-2

10. Gould, F.D.H. (2017) Testing the role of cursorial specializations as adaptive key innovations in Paleocene-Eocene “ungulates” of North America. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 24(4): 453-463 DOI:10.1007/s10914-016-9359-4

11. Yu, Y., Chen, Y., Mikael, P., Zhang, F., Stalcup, A.M., German, R.Z., Gould, F.D.H., Ohlemacher, J., Zhang, H., Linhardt, R.J. (2017) Surprising absence of heparin in the intestinal mucosa of baby pigs. Glycobiology 27(1): 57-63 DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cww104

12. Gould, F. D. H., Ohlemacher, J., Lammers, A. R., Gross, A., Ballester, A., Fraley, L., German, R. Z. (2016) Central nervous system integration of sensorimotor signals in oral and pharyngeal structures: oropharyngeal kinematics response to recurrent laryngeal nerve lesion. Journal of Applied Physiology 120(5): 495-502 DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00946.2015

13. Gould, F. D. H., Lammers, A. R., Ohlemacher, J., Ballester, A., Fraley, L., Gross, A., German, R.Z. (2015) The physiologic impact of unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) lesion on infant oropharyngeal and esophageal performance. Dysphagia 30(6): 714-722 DOI: 10.1007/s00455-015-9648-8

14. Gould, F.D.H. (2014). To 3D or not to 3D: do 3D surface analyses improve ecomorphological inferences? PLoS ONE 9(3) e91719 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091719

15. Gould, F.D.H., Rose, K.D. (2014). Postcranial skeleton of the largest known arctocyonid “condylarth” Arctocyon mumak (Mammalia: Procreodi).  Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 34(5): 1180-1202 DOI: 20.1080/02724634.2014.841707